---
title: Modeling variation in abundance using capture-recapture data
author: Richard Chandler
date: Feb 24, 2019
bibliography: unmarked.bib
csl: ecology.csl
output:
rmarkdown::html_vignette:
fig_width: 5
fig_height: 3.5
number_sections: true
toc: true
vignette: >
%\VignetteIndexEntry{Capture-recapture}
%\VignetteEngine{knitr::rmarkdown}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
---
```{r,echo=FALSE}
options(rmarkdown.html_vignette.check_title = FALSE)
```
# Abstract
The "un" in `unmarked` is somewhat misleading because the package can be used to analyze data from marked animals.
The three most common sampling methods that produce suitable data are removal sampling, double observer sampling, and capture-recapture methods.
This document focuses on the analysis of capture-recapture data using a class of models known as multinomial $N$-mixture models [@royle_generalized_2004; @dorazio_etal:2005], which assume that capture-recapture data have been collected at a collection of sample locations ("sites").
Capture-recapture models can be fitted with constant parameters ($M_0$), time-specific parameters ($M_t$), and behavioral responses ($M_b$).
In addition, spatial variation in abundance and capture probability can also be modeled using covariates.
`unmarked` has two functions for fitting capture-recapture models: `multinomPois` and `gmultmix`.
Both allow for user-defined functions to describe the capture process, and the latter allows for modeling of temporary emigration when data have been collected using the so-called robust design [@kendall_etal:1997; @chandlerEA_2011].
# Introduction
In traditional capture-recapture models, $n$ individuals are captured
at a site during the course of $J$ sampling occasions. The encounter
history for each individual is used as information about capture
probability $p$ such that the total population size $N$ can be
regarded as the size parameter of a binomial distribution, $n \sim
\mbox{Binomial}(N, p)$.
Although traditional capture-recapture models are useful
for estimating population size when $p<1$, they do not allow one to model
variation in abundance, which is a central focus of much ecological
research.
@royle_generalized_2004 and @dorazio_etal:2005 developed a framework for
modeling variation in both abundance and capture
probability when capture-recapture data are collected at a set of
$R$ sites. Site-specific abundance ($N_i; i=1,2,...,R$) is regarded
as latent variable following a discrete distribution such as the
Poisson or negative binomial. The encounter histories are then
tabulated at each site so that they can be regarded as an outcome of a
multinomial distribution with cell probabilities $\bf \pi$
determined by a protocol-specific function of capture
probability. Assuming a Poisson
distribution, the model can be written as
$$
\begin{gather}
N_i \sim \mbox{Poisson}(\lambda) \nonumber \\
{\bf y_i}|N_i \sim \mbox{Multinomial}(N_i, \pi(p))
\label{mod}
\end{gather}
$$
In the above, $\lambda$ is the expected number of individuals at each
site. ${\bf y_i}$ is a vector containing the number of
individuals with encounter history $k; k=1,2,...K$ at site $i$. The
number of observable encounter histories $K$ depends on the sampling
protocol. For a capture-recapture study with 2 occasions, there are
3 possible encounter histories $H \in (11, 10, 01)$. In Equation 1,
$\pi(p)$ is a function that that converts capture probability $p$ to
multinomial cell probabilities, \emph{i.e.}, the proportion
of individuals expected to have capture history $k$. For example, the
cell probabilities corresponding to the capture histories listed above
are
$$
{\bf \pi}(p) = \{ p^2, p(1-p), (1-p)p \}.
$$
The probability of not capturing an individual in this case ($H=00$)
is $(1-p)^2$.
Spatial variation in abundance can be modeled using covariates
with a log-link function
$$
\log(\lambda_i) = \beta_0 + \beta_1 x_i
$$
where $x_i$ is some site-specific covariate such as habitat type or
elevation. Multiple covariates can be considered and a more general
form of the above can be written as $\log(\lambda_i) =
{\bf X}_i' \bf \beta$ where ${\bf X}$ is a design matrix and
${\bf \beta}$ is a vector
of coefficients, possibly including an intercept.
Capture probability can be modeled using the logit-link in much the same way
$$
\text{logit}(p_{ij}) = \alpha_0 + \alpha_1 v_{ij}
$$
where $v_{ij}$ is some covariate specific to the site and
capture occasion. When $p$ is assumed to be constant, the model is
often referred to as model $M_0$. Alternatively, $p$ may be
occasion-specific
(model $M_t$) or may be influenced by animal behavior (model
$M_b$). @otis_etal:1978 and @williams_etal:2002 are
comprehensive references.
# Data
As previously mentioned, the data required by `unmarked` are an $R
\times K$ matrix in which each row is the vector of tabulated encounter
histories for animals captured at some site. Capture-recapture data,
however, is typically recorded in the format shown in Table 1.
```{r, echo=FALSE}
tab <- data.frame(
id = c("GB","YR","RO","PP","GY","PR"),
site = c(rep("A",4), "B", "B"),
cap = c("101","101","111","100","100","010")
)
names(tab) <- c("Animal ID", "Site", "Capture history")
knitr::kable(tab, align="lcc",
caption="Table 1. Capture-recapture data for 6 individuals sampled on 3 occasions"
)
```
In the absence of individual covariates, the data in
Table 1 can be converted to the requisite format as shown
in Table 2. Notice that no captures were made in sites
C and D. It is important that such sites are retained in the analysis
in order to make inference about spatial variation in abundance.
```{r, echo=FALSE}
tab2 <- data.frame(
Site=c("A","B","C","D"),
eh100=c(1,1,0,0), eh010=c(0,1,0,0), eh001=c(0,0,0,0),
eh110=c(0,0,0,0), eh011=c(0,0,0,0), eh101=c(2,0,0,0),
eh111=c(1,0,0,0))
names(tab2) <- c("Site", "100","010","001","110","011","101","111")
knitr::kable(tab2, align="lccccccc",
caption="Table 2. Capture-recapture data from Table 1 in the format required by unmarked")
```
# Closed Population Models
## Models $M_0$, $M_t$, and models with covariates of $p$.
In this example we will analyze point count data collected on alder
flycatchers (*Empidonax alnorum*) by
@chandler_etal:2009. Point count data such as these are
collected on unmarked animals, but one can apply
capture-recapture models because it is possible to keep track of
individual birds during a short period of time [@alldredge_etal:2007]. That is, we can
pretend like birds are marked by noting which time intervals they are
detected in during a short survey. The alder flycatcher data were
collected using fixed-area 15-minute point counts, which were divided
into 3
5-minute intervals. Each point was surveyed 3 times during 2005.
The following command imports the
capture histories for 50 individuals detected in 2005 at 49 point
count locations.
```{r}
alfl <- read.csv(system.file("csv", "alfl.csv", package="unmarked"))
head(alfl, 5)
```
We see 5 rows of data representing the encounter histories for 5 birds
detected at 2 points during 3 survey occasions. From these 5 birds, it appears as though
detection probability is high since each bird was detected during at
least 2 of the three time intervals.
Associated with the bird data are site- and visit-specific covariates
for each of the 49 sites. We can import these data using the following
command:
```{r}
alfl.covs <- read.csv(system.file("csv", "alflCovs.csv",
package="unmarked"), row.names=1)
head(alfl.covs)
```
Each row of this `data.frame` corresponds to a point count
location. The variable `struct` is a measure of vegetation
structure, and `woody` is the percent cover of woody vegetation
at each of the 50-m radius plots. Time of day and date were measured
for each of the three visits.
To format the data for `unmarked`, we need to tabulate the
encounter histories for each site. Before doing so, let's first put
our capture histories in a single column. Let's also be explicit about
the levels of our factors for both the newly created `captureHistory`
column and the point id column.
```{r}
alfl$captureHistory <- paste(alfl$interval1, alfl$interval2, alfl$interval3, sep="")
alfl$captureHistory <- factor(alfl$captureHistory,
levels=c("001", "010", "011", "100", "101", "110", "111"))
## Don't do this:
#levels(alfl$id) <- rownames(alfl.covs)
alfl$id <- factor(alfl$id, levels=rownames(alfl.covs))
```
Specifying the levels of `captureHistory` ensures that when we
tabulate the encounter histories, we will include zeros for histories
that were not observed. Similarly, setting the levels of `alfl$id` tells `R` that there
were some sites where no ALFL were detected. This way, when we
tabulate the data, we get a frequency for each site, not just the ones
with >1 detection. Here are the commands to extract data from the
first primary period and to tabulate the encounter
histories.
```{r}
alfl.v1 <- alfl[alfl$survey==1,]
alfl.H1 <- table(alfl.v1$id, alfl.v1$captureHistory)
head(alfl.H1, 5)
```
The object `alfl.H1` contains the tabulated capture histories for
each site. This is the format required by `unmarked`. The data from
the first 5 sites
suggest that detection probability was high since the most
common encounter history was `111`.
Now we are almost ready to create our `unmarkedFrame` and begin
fitting models. We will fit our first series of models using the
`multinomPois` function, which requires data formated using the
`unmarkedFrameMPois` function. This constructor function
has an argument \texttt{type}, which currently can be set to
`"removal"` or `"double"`, corresponding to removal sampling
data and double observer sampling respectively. In doing so, the
function automatically creates the function to convert $p$ to
${\bf \pi}$. If `type` is missing, however, the user needs to
specify
a function to convert detection probability to multinomial cell
probabilities. In the future, we may add an
\texttt{type} option to automatically handle standard
capture-recapture data too,
but here we show how to supply it using a user-defined `piFun`,
which allows flexibility in converting detection probability
to multinomial cell probabilities $\bf \pi$. The `piFun` must
take a matrix of detection probabilities with $J$ columns
(3 in this case), and convert them to a
matrix of multinomial
cell probabilities with $K$ columns. Each column corresponds to the
probability of observing the encounter history $k$. Here is a
`piFun` to compute the multinomial cell probabilities when there
were 3 sampling occasions. This function allows us to fit models
$M_0$, $M_t$, or models with covariates of $p$.
```{r}
crPiFun <- function(p) {
p1 <- p[,1]
p2 <- p[,2]
p3 <- p[,3]
cbind("001" = (1-p1) * (1-p2) * p3,
"010" = (1-p1) * p2 * (1-p3),
"011" = (1-p1) * p2 * p3,
"100" = p1 * (1-p2) * (1-p3),
"101" = p1 * (1-p2) * p3,
"110" = p1 * p2 * (1-p3),
"111" = p1 * p2 * p3)
}
```
To demonstrate how this works, imagine that we surveyed 2 sites and
detection probability was constant ($p=0.2$) among sites and survey
occasions. The function converts these capture probabilities to
multinomial cell probabilities. Note that these cell probabilities will
sum to <1 if capture probability is less than 1 over the 3 occasions.
```{r}
p <- matrix(0.4, 2, 3)
crPiFun(p)
rowSums(crPiFun(p))
```
When providing a user-defined \texttt{piFun}, we also need to provide
information about how to handle missing values. That is, if we have a
missing value in a covariate, we need to know which values of ${\bf y}$
are affected. In `unmarked`, this can be done by supplying a
mapping-matrix to the `obsToY` argument in the
`unmarkedFrameMPois` function. `obsToY` needs to be a matrix
of zeros and ones with
the number of rows equal to the number of columns for some obsCov, and
the number columns equal to the number of columns in ${\bf y}$.
If `obsToY[j,k]`=1, then a missing value in `obsCov[i,j]`
translates to
a missing value in `y[i,k]`. For the capture-recapture data
considered here, we can set all
elements of `obsToY` to 1.
```{r}
o2y <- matrix(1, 3, 7)
```
We are now ready to create the `unmarkedFrame`. In order to fit
model $M_t$, we need a covariate that references the time interval
, which we call `intervalMat` below. We also provide a
couple of site-specific covariates: the percent cover of woody
vegetation and vegetation structure.
```{r}
library(unmarked)
intervalMat <- matrix(c('1','2','3'), 50, 3, byrow=TRUE)
class(alfl.H1) <- "matrix"
umf.cr1 <- unmarkedFrameMPois(y=alfl.H1,
siteCovs=alfl.covs[,c("woody", "struct", "time.1", "date.1")],
obsCovs=list(interval=intervalMat),
obsToY=o2y, piFun="crPiFun")
```
Writing a `piFun` and creating the `obsToY` object are
the hardest parts of a capture-recapture analysis in
`unmarked`. Again, this is done automatically for removal models
and double observer models, and we may add an option to do this
automatically for capture-recapture data too, but hopefully
the flexibility allowed by specifying user-defined
functions is evident.
Now that we have our data formatted we can fit some models. The
following correspond to model $M_0$, model $M_t$, and a model with a
continuous covariate effect on $p$.
```{r}
M0 <- multinomPois(~1 ~1, umf.cr1, engine="R")
Mt <- multinomPois(~interval-1 ~1, umf.cr1, engine="R")
Mx <- multinomPois(~time.1 ~1, umf.cr1, engine="R")
```
The first two models can be fit in other software programs. What is
unique about `unmarked` is that we can also model variation in
abundance and detection probability among sites. The following model
treats abundance as
a function of the percent cover of woody vegetation.
```{r}
(M0.woody <- multinomPois(~1 ~woody, umf.cr1, engine="R"))
```
```{r, fig.width=5, fig.height=5}
nd <- data.frame(woody=seq(0, 0.8, length=50))
E.abundance <- predict(M0.woody, type="state", newdata=nd, appendData=TRUE)
plot(Predicted ~ woody, E.abundance, type="l", ylim=c(0, 6),
ylab="Alder flycatchers / plot", xlab="Woody vegetation cover")
lines(lower ~ woody, E.abundance, col=gray(0.7))
lines(upper ~ woody, E.abundance, col=gray(0.7))
```
What about detection probability? Since there was no evidence of
variation in $p$, we can simply back-transform the logit-scale estimate
to obtain $\hat{p}$.
```{r}
backTransform(M0.woody, type="det")
```
As suggested by the raw data, detection probability was very high. The
corresponding multinomial cell probabilities can be computed by
plugging this estimate of detection probability into our
`piFun`. This `getP` function makes this easy.
```{r}
round(getP(M0.woody), 2)[1,]
```
Note that the encounter probability most likely to be observed was
111. In fact $p$ was so high that the probability of not detecting an
alder flycatcher was essentially zero, $(1-0.81)^3 = 0.007$.
## Modeling behavioral responses, Model $M_b$
An animal's behavior might change after being captured. Both
trap avoidance and trap attraction are frequently
observed in a variety of taxa. A simple model of these two behaviors
is known as model $M_b$ [@otis_etal:1978]. The model assumes that
newly-captured individuals are captured with probability $p_{naive}$
and then are subsequently recaptured with probability $p_{wise}$. If
$p_{wise} < p_{naive}$, then animals exhibit trap avoidance. In some
cases, such as when traps are baited, we might observed $p_{wise} >
p_{naive}$ in which case the animals are said to be "trap-happy".
To fit model $M_b$ in `unmarked`, we need to create a new
`piFun` and we need to provide an occasion-specific covariate
(`obsCov`) that
distinguishes the two capture probabilities, $p_{naive}$ and
$p_{wise}$. The simplest possible approach is the following
```{r}
crPiFun.Mb <- function(p) { # p should have 3 columns
pNaive <- p[,1]
pWise <- p[,3]
cbind("001" = (1-pNaive) * (1-pNaive) * pNaive,
"010" = (1-pNaive) * pNaive * (1-pWise),
"011" = (1-pNaive) * pNaive * pWise,
"100" = pNaive * (1-pWise) * (1-pWise),
"101" = pNaive * (1-pWise) * pWise,
"110" = pNaive * pWise * (1-pWise),
"111" = pNaive * pWise * pWise)
}
```
This function `crPiFun.Mb` allows capture probability to be
modeled as
$$
\text{logit}(p_{ij}) = \alpha_{naive} + \alpha_{wise} behavior_j + \alpha_1 x_i
$$
where $behavior_j$ is simply a dummy variable. Thus, when no
site-specific covariates ($x_i$) are included, $p_{ij}$ is either $p_{naive}$
or $p_{wise}$. The following code constructs a new
`unmarkedFrame` and fits model $M_b$ to the alder
flycatcher data.
```{r}
behavior <- matrix(c('Naive','Naive','Wise'), 50, 3, byrow=TRUE)
umf.cr1Mb <- unmarkedFrameMPois(y=alfl.H1,
siteCovs=alfl.covs[,c("woody", "struct", "time.1")],
obsCovs=list(behavior=behavior),
obsToY=o2y, piFun="crPiFun.Mb")
M0 <- multinomPois(~1 ~1, umf.cr1Mb, engine="R")
```
```{r}
(Mb <- multinomPois(~behavior-1 ~1, umf.cr1Mb, engine="R"))
```
AIC gives us no reason to favor model $M_b$ over model $M_0$. This is
perhaps not too surprising given that the alder
flycatchers were not actually captured. Here is a command to compute
95% confidence intervals for the two detection probabilities.
```{r}
plogis(confint(Mb, type="det", method="profile"))
```
## Caution, Warning, Danger
The function `crPiFun.Mb` is not generic and could easily be
abused. For example, you would get bogus results if you tried to use
this function to fit model $M_{bt}$, or if you incorrectly formatted
the `behavior` covariate. Thus, extreme caution is advised when
writing user-defined `piFun`s.
There are also a few limitations regarding user-defined
`piFun`s. First, they can only take a single argument `p`,
which must be the $R \times J$ matrix of detection probabilities. This
makes it cumbersome to fit models such as model $M_h$ as described
below. It also makes it impossible to fit models such as model
$M_{bt}$. It
would be better if `piFun`s could accept multiple
arguments, but this would require some modifications to
`multinomPois` and `gmultmix`, which we may do in the
future.
## Individual Heterogeneity in Capture Probability, Model $M_h$
The capture-recapture models covered thus far assume
that variation in capture probability can be
explained by site-specific covariates, time, or behavior. Currently,
`unmarked` can not fit so-called individual covariate models,
in which heterogeneity in $p$ is attributable to animal-specific
covariates. However, one could
partition the data into strata and analyze the strata separately. For
example, sex-specific
differences could be studied by dividing the data on males and females
into 2 subsets.
Although individual covariate models cannot be considered, it is possible
to fit model $M_h$, which assumes
random variation in capture probability among individuals.
Here is a `piFun`, based on code by Andy Royle. It assumes
a logit-normal distribution for the random effects
$$
\mbox{logit}(p_i) \sim Normal(\mu, \sigma^2).
$$
These random effects are integrated out of the likelihood to obtain the
marginal probability of capture.
```{r}
MhPiFun <- function(p) {
mu <- qlogis(p[,1]) # logit(p)
sig <- exp(qlogis(p[1,2]))
J <- ncol(p)
M <- nrow(p)
il <- matrix(NA, nrow=M, ncol=7)
dimnames(il) <- list(NULL, c("001","010","011","100","101","110","111"))
for(i in 1:M) {
il[i,1] <- integrate( function(x) {
(1-plogis(mu[i]+x))*(1-plogis(mu[i]+x))*plogis(mu[i]+x)*dnorm(x,0,sig)
}, lower=-Inf, upper=Inf, stop.on.error=FALSE)$value
il[i,2] <- integrate( function(x) {
(1-plogis(mu[i]+x))*plogis(mu[i]+x)*(1-plogis(mu[i]+x))*dnorm(x,0,sig)
}, lower=-Inf, upper=Inf, stop.on.error=FALSE)$value
il[i,3] <- integrate( function(x) {
(1-plogis(mu[i]+x))*plogis(mu[i]+x)*plogis(mu[i]+x)*dnorm(x,0,sig)
}, lower=-Inf, upper=Inf, stop.on.error=FALSE)$value
il[i,4] <- integrate( function(x) {
plogis(mu[i]+x)*(1-plogis(mu[i]+x))*(1-plogis(mu[i]+x))*dnorm(x,0,sig)
}, lower=-Inf, upper=Inf, stop.on.error=FALSE)$value
il[i,5] <- integrate( function(x) {
plogis(mu[i]+x)*(1-plogis(mu[i]+x))*plogis(mu[i]+x)*dnorm(x,0,sig)
}, lower=-Inf, upper=Inf, stop.on.error=FALSE)$value
il[i,6] <- integrate( function(x) {
plogis(mu[i]+x)*plogis(mu[i]+x)*(1-plogis(mu[i]+x))*dnorm(x,0,sig)
}, lower=-Inf, upper=Inf, stop.on.error=FALSE)$value
il[i,7] <- integrate( function(x) {
plogis(mu[i]+x)*plogis(mu[i]+x)*plogis(mu[i]+x)*dnorm(x,0,sig)
}, lower=-Inf, upper=Inf, stop.on.error=FALSE)$value
}
return(il)
}
```
This function does not allow for temporal variation in capture
probability because we are using the second column of `p` as
$\sigma$, the parameter governing the variance of the random
effects. Once again, this is somewhat clumsy and it would be better to
allow `piFun` to accept additional arguments, which could be
controlled from `multinomPois` using an additional
`formula`. Such features may be added eventually.
Having defined our new `piFun`, we can fit the model as follows
```{r, eval=FALSE}
parID <- matrix(c('p','sig','sig'), 50, 3, byrow=TRUE)
umf.cr2 <- unmarkedFrameMPois(y=alfl.H1,
siteCovs=alfl.covs[,c("woody", "struct", "time.1")],
obsCovs=list(parID=parID),
obsToY=o2y, piFun="MhPiFun")
multinomPois(~parID-1 ~woody, umf.cr2)
```
```
## Call:
## multinomPois(formula = ~parID - 1 ~ woody, data = umf.cr2)
##
## Abundance:
## Estimate SE z P(>|z|)
## (Intercept) -0.84 0.363 -2.31 0.02078
## woody 2.59 0.680 3.81 0.00014
##
## Detection:
## Estimate SE z P(>|z|)
## parIDp 1.637 0.645 2.54 0.0112
## parIDsig 0.841 0.622 1.35 0.1762
##
## AIC: 242.3731
```
The estimate of $\sigma$ is high, indicating the existence of substantial
heterogeneity in detection probability. However, one should be aware of the
concerns about $M_h$ raised by @link:2003 who demonstrated that
population size $N$ is not an identifiable parameter among various
classes of models assumed for the random effects. For example, we
might use a beta distribution rather than a logit-normal distribution,
and obtain very different estimates of abundance. @link:2003
demonstrated that conventional methods such as AIC cannot be used to
discriminate among these models.
## Distance-related heterogeneity
Another source of individual heterogeneity in capture probability
arises from the distance between animal activity centers and
sample locations. Traditional capture-recapture models ignore this
important source of variation in capture probability, but
recently developed spatial capture-recapture (SCR) models overcome this
limitation
[@efford:2004; @royle_young:2008; @royle_dorazio:2008]. Distance-related
heterogeneity in detection
probability was probably not an important concern in the alder
flycatcher dataset because the plots were very small (0.785 ha) and
only singing birds were included in the analysis. If it were a
concern, we could of course collect distance data and use the
`gdistsamp` function to fit a distance sampling model.
In other contexts, such as when using arrays of live traps,
distance sampling is not an option and
SCR models offer numerous advantages over traditional
capture-recapture models.
# Modeling Temporary Emigration
In the previous analysis we used data from the first visit only.
@chandlerEA_2011 proposed a model that allows us to
make use of the entire alder flycatcher dataset. The model is similar
to the temporary emigration model of @kendall_etal:1997 except
that we are
interested in modeling variation in abundance among sites.
The model assumes that no births or deaths occur during the study
period, but animals may move on and off the plots between sampling
occasions. This type of movement is referred to as temporary
emigration. To account for it, define $M_i$ to be the super-population
size, the total number of individuals that use site $i$ during the
study period. Assume that we visit each site on $T$
primary periods and define $N_{it}$ to be the subset of $M_i$ exposed
to sampling during primary period $t$. We now collect
capture-recapture data
at each site during each primary period, and obtain the data $\bf
y_{it}$. The model can be written as
$$
\begin{gather}
M_i \sim \mbox{Poisson}(\lambda) \nonumber \\
N_{it}|M_i \sim \mbox{Binomial}(M_i, \phi) \nonumber \\
{\bf y_{it}}|N_{it} \sim \mbox{Multinomial}(N_{it}, \pi(p))
\label{mod:te}
\end{gather}
$$
where $\phi$ is the probability of being available for capture. This
can be modeled as a function of covariates using the logit-link.
The data structure for the robust design is more complex than before,
but it is easy to create in `R`. We can once again use the
`table` function - but this time, we create a three-dimensional table
rather than a two-dimensional one. We also need to expand the
`obsToY` mapping matrix so that it has a block diagonal
structure. This isn't so intuitive, but the
commands below are generic and can be applied to other
capture-recapture designs.
```{r}
alfl.H <- table(alfl$id, alfl$captureHistory, alfl$survey)
alfl.Hmat <- cbind(alfl.H[,,1], alfl.H[,,2], alfl.H[,,3])
nVisits <- 3
o2yGMM <- kronecker(diag(nVisits), o2y)
umf.cr <- unmarkedFrameGMM(y=alfl.Hmat,
siteCovs=alfl.covs[,c("woody", "struct")],
yearlySiteCovs=list(date=alfl.covs[,3:5], time=alfl.covs[,6:8]),
obsCovs=list(interval=cbind(intervalMat,intervalMat,intervalMat)),
obsToY=o2yGMM, piFun="crPiFun", numPrimary=nVisits)
```
Notice that we have 3 types of covariates now. The site-specific
covariates are the same as before. Now, however, the observation
covariates must match the dimensions of the ${\bf y}$ matrix. We can
also have a class of covariates that vary among primary periods but
not within primary periods. These are called `yearlySiteCovs`, which is
a misleading name. It is a carry-over from other "open population"
models in `unmarked`, but it should be remembered that these
models are most suitable for data from a single year, since we assume
no births or mortalities.
We can fit the model using the `gmultmix` function, which has a
slightly different set of arguments. Rather than a single formula, the
function takes 3 formulas for abundance covariates, availability
covariates, and detection covariates in that order.
```{r}
(fm1 <- gmultmix(~woody, ~1, ~time+date, umf.cr, engine="R"))
```
Results from this model are similar to those obtained using the subset
of data, but the standard error for the woody estimate has
decreased. If we back-transform the estimate of $\phi$, we see that
the probability of being available for detection is 0.31.
Another feature of `gmultmix` is that $N$ can be modeled using
either the Poisson or negative binomial distribution. We might
eventually add other options such as the zero-inflated Poisson.
# References